Complex patterning schemes, higher aspect ratios, smaller vias and channels, more fragile features, and the increasing risk of pattern collapse are hastening the transition from bulk materials engineering to selective processing.
Selective processes use specially co-designed chemical and materials interactions to enable delicate and precise deposition and removal of target materials. Selective deposition is additive manufacturing at an atomic scale, putting atoms only where they are needed. Selective removal is subtractive manufacturing at an atomic scale, removing only unwanted atoms—even those beyond the line of sight—and leaving the rest in place. Selective etch and deposition technologies can be used to create and shape tiny patterns; fabricate novel structures; and overcome technology roadblocks such as the pattern collapse associated with wet processes, edge-placement errors in patterning, and 2D scaling issues associated with transistor contact and interconnect resistance.